This study aims to examine the mediating role of professional learning on change in teacher practice through the proactive personality and network intentionality. This research also seeks to better comprehend and capture the antecedences and consequences of the network intentions. 438 primary school teacher from 24 schools participated in the study from Istanbul.  Network intentionality scale, proactive personality scale, teacher professional learning scale, and change in teacher practices scale were used to collect data.  All the measures were conceptualized as individual-level constructs. The results of the study show that there are positive correlations between proactive personality network intention, professional learning and change in teacher practice. Also, the study revealed that proactive personality has positive effects on the network intentions; network intentions has a both direct and indirect effect on the change in teacher practice. These results explicitly indicated that change in teacher practice is closely associated with teacher professional learning, teacher personality, and network intentions. Because of the change in teacher practice is closely related to group dynamics and learning, planning a change strategy about understanding the role of learning and having a relationship with a colleague is so crucial for schools.

Keywords: Professional learning, network intention, proactive personality, change in teacher practice, primary education.


Akın, A., Abacı, R., Kaya, M., & Arıcı, N. (2011). Kısaltılmış Proaktif Kişilik Ölçeği’nin (KPÖ) Türkçe formunun geçerlik ve güvenirliği. Paper presented at the ICES11 International Conference on Educational Sciences, June, 22-25, Famagusta, Cyprus.

Baker‐Doyle, K. J., & Yoon, S. A. (2011). In search of practitioner‐based social capital: A social network analysis tool for understanding and facilitating teacher collaboration in a US‐based STEM professional development program. Professional Development in Education, 37(1), 75-93.

Baker-Doyle, K. J., & Yoon, S. A. (2018). Towards intentional network design: Applying what we have learned from teachers’ social capital interventions. In S. A. Yoon, & K. J. Baker-Doyle (Eds.). Networked by design: Interventions for teachers to develop social capital (pp. 215–227). New York, NY: Routledge.

Baker-Doyle, K. J., & Yoon, S. A. (2020). The social side of teacher education: Implications of social network research for the design of professional development. International Journal of Educational Research, 101.

Bateman, T. S., & Crant, J. M. (1999). Proactive behavior: Meaning, impact, recommendations. Business Horizons, 42(3), 63-70.

Boyle, B., Lamprianou, I., & Boyle, T. (2005). A longitudinal study of teacher change: What makes professional development effective? Report of the second year of the study. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 16(1), 1-27.

Burt, M., & Keenan, F. (1998). Trends in staff development for adult ESL instructors: ERIC Q & A. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=ED423711&site=ehos t-live  

Büyüköztürk, Ş., Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö. E., Karadeniz, Ş., & Demirel, F. (2021). Eğitimde bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri [Scientific research methods in education]. Ankara: PegemA.

Chackoria, J. (2019). Proactive personality, presenteeism, and future wellbeing. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Illinois State University, Illinois.

Chan, D. (2006). Interactive effects of situational judgment effectiveness and proactive personality on work perceptions and work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(2), 475.

Coburn, C. E., & Russell, J. L. (2008). District policy and teachers’ social networks. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 30(3), 203-235.

Cohen J. E. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Cohen, A., Klein, K., Daly, A. J., & Finnigan, K. (2011). Out with the old, in with the new: When are leader successions successful? New Directions in Leadership Annual Meeting. The Wharton School of Business University of Pennsylvania.

Daly, A. J., Moolenaar, N. M., Bolivar, J. M., & Burke, P. (2010). Relationships in reform: The role of teachers' social networks. Journal of Educational Administration, 48(3), 359-391.

Darling-Hammond, L., Hyler, M. E., & Gardner, M. (2017). Effective teacher professional development. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute.

Datnow, A. (2012). Teacher agency in educational reform: Lessons from social networks research. American Journal of Education, 119(1), 193-201.

Diehl, D. (2020). The multiplexity of professional learning communities: exploring the co-evolution of teacher social networks. Research Papers in Education, 35(5), 623-639.

Duncan‐Howell, J. (2010). Teachers making connections: Online communities as a source of professional learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(2), 324-340.

Er, E. (2017). Social network analysis of primary school administrators and teachers relations. (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). Gazi University, Educational Sciences Institute, Ankara.

Er, E., & Çalık, T. (2017). The relationships between primary school teachers’ social network tendency and perceptions on social network structure of the school. Gazi University Gazi Faculty of Education Journal, 37(3), 1061-1083.

Er, E. & Çalık, T. (2020). Examining the effects of proactive personality, perceived network and demographic features on professional relationship with social network analysis. In F. G. Yilmaz, M. and Naillioğlu Kaymak (Eds.), Educational Research 2020, E-ISBN: 978-975-2490-47-5.

Frank, K. A., Kim, J., Salloum, S. J., Bieda, K. N., & Youngs, P. (2020). From interpretation to instructional practice: A network study of early-career teachers’ sensemaking in the era of accountability pressures and Common Core state standards. American Educational Research Journal, 57(6), 2293-2338.

Gao, Q., Chen, P., Zhou, Z., & Jiang, J. (2020). The impact of school climate on trait creativity in primary school students: The mediating role of achievement motivation and proactive personality. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 40(3), 330-343.

Geijsel, F. P., Sleegers, P. J., Stoel, R. D., & Krüger M. L. (2009). The effect of teacher psychological and school organizational and leadership factors on teachers' professional learning in Dutch schools.  The Elementary School Journal, 109(4), 406-427. doi: 10.1086/593940.

Gevorkian, M. (2011). Relationships between proactive personality, networking, career satisfaction, and performance perceptions. Doctoral dissertation, Alliant International University, Marshall Goldsmith School of Management, San Diego.

Guskey, T. R. (2002). Professional development and teacher change. Teachers and Teaching, 8(3), 381-391.

Gümüş, S., Apaydın, Ç., & Bellibaş. M. Ş. (2018). Adaptation of teacher professional learning scale to Turkish: The validity and reliability study. Journal of Education and Humanities: Theory and Practice, 9(17), 107-124.

Huber, A. F. (2017). Proactive personality and voluntary turnover: The moderating effects of development and perceived career opportunities. (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). Illinois State University, Illinois.

İlhan, M., & Çetin, B. (2014). LISREL ve AMOS programları kullanılarak gerçekleştirilen yapısal eşitlik modeli (yem) analizlerine ilişkin sonuçların karşılaştırılması [Comparing the Analysis Results of the Structural Equation Models (SEM) Conducted Using LISREL and AMOS]. Journal of Measurement and Evaluation in Education and Psychology, 5(2), 26-42.

Joo, B. K., & Lim, T. (2009). The effects of organizational learning culture, perceived job complexity, and proactive personality on organizational commitment and intrinsic motivation. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 16(1), 48-60.

Kılınç, A. Ç., Polatcan, M., Atmaca, T., & Koşar, M. (2021). Teacher self-efficacy and individual academic optimism as predictors of teacher professional learning: A structural equation modeling. Education and Science, 46(205).

Krutka, D. G., Carpenter, J. P., & Trust, T. (2016). Elements of engagement: A model of teacher interactions via professional learning networks. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 32(4), 150-158.

Li, Y., & Krasny, M. E. (2020). Development of professional networks among environmental educators. Professional Development in Education, 46(2), 337-353.

Li, M., Liu, Y., Liu, L., & Wang, Z. (2017). Proactive personality and innovative work behavior: The mediating effects of affective states and creative self-efficacy in teachers. Current Psychology, 36(4), 697-706.

Lieberman, A. (2000). Networks as learning communities: Shaping the future of teacher development. Journal of Teacher Education, 51(3), 221-227.

Liou, Y. H., & Daly, A. J. (2014). Closer to learning: Social networks, trust, and professional communities. Journal of School Leadership, 24(4), 753-795.

Liu, S., Hallinger, P., & Feng, D. (2016). Supporting the professional learning of teachers in china: Does principal leadership make a difference? Teaching and Teacher Education, 59, 79-91.

Martin, A. J., & Dowson, M. (2009). Interpersonal relationships, motivation, engagement, and achievement: Yields for theory, current issues, and educational practice. Review of Educational Research, 79(1), 327-365.

Meiers, M. (2007). Teacher professional learning, teaching practice and student learning outcomes: Important issues. In Handbook of Teacher Education (pp. 409-414). Springer, Dordrecht.

Mockler, N. (2020). Teacher professional learning under audit: Reconfiguring practice in an age of standards. Professional Development in Education, 1-15.

Moolenaar, N. M. (2012). A social network perspective on teacher collaboration in schools: Theory, methodology, and applications. American Journal of Education, 119(1), 7-39.

Moolenaar, N. M., Sleegers, P. J., & Daly, A. J. (2012). Teaming up: Linking collaboration networks, collective efficacy, and student achievement. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(2), 251-262.

Ng, T. W. H., Eby, L. T., Sorensen, K. L., & Feldman, D. C. (2005), Predictors of objective and subjective career success: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 58, 367-408.

Özdemir, N. (2019). Principal leadership and students' achievement: Mediated pathways of professional community and teachers' instructional practices. KEDI Journal of Educational Policy, 16(1), 81-104.

Patterson, M. N. (2018). Proactive personality benefits: The role of work-life salience, career encouragement, and career satisfaction. Doctoral dissertation. San Jose State University, California.

Penuel, W. R., & Riel, M. (2007). The ‘new’ science of networks and the challenge of school change. Phi Delta Kappan, 88(8), 611-615.

Penuel, W. R., Riel, M. R., Krause, A., & Frank, K. A. (2009). Analyzing teachers’ professional interactions in a school as social capital: A social network approach. Teachers College Record, 111(1), 124-163.

Polatcan, M. (2020). The adaptation of professional learning activities scale to Turkish: The validity and reliability study. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 7(2), 281-290. DOI: https://doi.org/10.33200/ijcer.808721

Porter, A. C., Garet, M. S., Desimone, L. D., Yoon, K. S., & Birman, B. F. (2000). Does professional development change teaching practice? Results from a three-year study: Executive summary. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of the Undersecretary.

Rushton, S., Morgan, J., & Richard, M. (2007). Teacher's Myers-Briggs personality profiles: Identifying effective teacher personality traits. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23(4), 432-441.

Siciliano, M. D. (2016). It’s the quality not the quantity of ties that matters social networks and self‐efficacy beliefs. American Educational Research Journal, 53, 227– 262. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831216629207

Sinnema, C., Daly, A. J., Liou, Y. H., & Rodway, J. (2020). Exploring the communities of learning policy in New Zealand using social network analysis: A case study of leadership, expertise, and networks. International Journal of Educational Research, 99, 101492.

Spillane, J. P., Kim, C. M., & Frank, K. A. (2012). Instructional advice and information providing and receiving behavior in elementary schools: Exploring tie formation as a building block in social capital development. American Educational Research Journal, 49(6), 1112-1145.

Şener, G. (2019). The predictive power of teachers' proactive personality traits on their problem solving skills. Pamukkale University Journal of Education, 45(45), 175-189.

Talebizadeh, S. M., Hosseingholizadeh, R., & Bellibaş, M. Ş. (2021). Analyzing the relationship between principals’ learning-centered leadership and teacher professional learning: The mediation role of trust and knowledge sharing behavior. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 68, 100970, 1-10

Timperley, H., & Alton-Lee, A. (2008). Reframing teacher professional learning: An alternative policy approach to strengthening valued outcomes for diverse learners. Review of Research in Education, 32(1), 328-369.

Tunca, S., Elçi, M., & Murat, G. (2018). The effect of proactive personality structure and innovative behavior on task performance. Adnan Menderes University Journal of Social Sciences Institutions, 5(1), 325-335.

Turner, J. E. (2003). Proactive personality and the Big Five as predictors of motivation to learn. Doctoral Dissertation, Old Dominion University, Norfolk.

Van Waes, S., Van den Bossche, P., Moolenaar, N. M., De Maeyer, S., & Van Petegem, P. (2015). Know-who? Linking faculty’s networks to stages of instructional development. Higher Education, 70(5), 807–826.

Van der Heijden, B. I., Van Vuuren, T. C., Kooij, D. T., & de Lange, A. H. (2015). Tailoring professional development for teachers in primary education: The role of age and proactive personality. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30(1), 22-37.

Wubbels, T., den Brok, P., van Tartwijk, J., & Levy, J. (Eds.). (2012). Interpersonal relationships in education: An overview of contemporary research. Rotterdam: Sense.

Yan, Y. (2015). The effect of perceived organizational support and proactive personality on reentry adjustment for returned teachers from university. International Journal of Research, 2(6), 16-23.

Yoon, S., Koehler-Yom, J., & Yang, Z. (2017). The effects of teachers’ social and human capital on urban science reform initiatives: Considerations for Professional development. Teachers College Record, 119(4), 1-32.






Research Article