ACADEMIC SELF-EFFICACY, ACADEMIC PROCRASTINATION, AND WELL-BEING: A MEDIATION MODEL WITH LARGE SAMPLE OF AZERBAIJAN
This study investigated the relationship between academic self-efficacy, academic procrastination, and well-being among Azerbaijani participants. The data was collected from 1657 participants who completed self-reported questionnaires measuring academic self-efficacy, academic procrastination, and well-being. The analyses of the study involved the use of correlation and structural equation modeling. The results of the structural equation modeling revealed that academic procrastination partially mediated the relationship between academic self-efficacy and well-being. The bootstrapping procedure also confirmed that the indirect effect of academic self-efficacy on well-being through academic procrastination was significant. Specifically, the data showed that higher levels of academic self-efficacy were associated with greater well-being, while higher levels of academic procrastination were associated with lower well-being. These findings add to the current understanding of the complex interplay between academic self-efficacy, procrastination, and well-being and may have important implications for interventions aimed at promoting academic success and well-being among students. Additionally, the study discusses the limitations and future research directions related to this topic.
Keywords: Academic self-efficacy; academic procrastination; wellbeing; Azerbaijan.
Aliyev, B. H. (2018). Some aspects of the influence of emotions on the formation of learning motivation and cognitive activities. Journal of Psychology, 3, 3-12. Retrieved from http://psixologiyajurnali.az › psixologiya_2018-3_2 (accessed January 18 2023)
Andretta, R., & McKay, M. T. (2020). Self-efficacy and well-being in adolescents: A comparative study using variable and person-centered analyses. The Children and Youth Services Review, 118, 105374. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyo.2020.10537uth
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman.
Byrne, D. G., Davenport, S. C., & Mazanov, J. (2007). Profiles of adolescent stress: The development of the adolescent stress questionnaire (ASQ). Journal of Adolescence, 30, 393-416. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2006.04.004
Caprara, G. V., Steca, P., Gerbino, M., Paciello, M., & Vecchio, G. M. (2006). Looking for adolescents’ well-being: Self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of positive thinking and happiness. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 15, 30–43. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1121189X00002013
Carr, A. (2013). Positive psychology: The science of happiness and human strengths. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203156629
Chissom, B. & Iran-Nejad, A. (1992). Development of an instrument to assess learning strategies. Psychological Reports, 71, 1001-1002. https://doi.org/10.2466/PR0.71.7.1001-1002
Coskun, K., Liebovich, B., Kara, C., & Cikrikci, O. (2022). Is theory of mind correlated with moral identity among primary school children?. Journal of Social and Educational Research, 1(1), 27-33.
Çiğdem, B. Ç. & Hatice, O. (2020). Subjective well-being in university students: what are the impacts of procrastination and attachment styles?, British Journal of Guidance & Counseling, 50(5), 768-781. https://doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2020.1803211
Diener, E. (2009). Assessing well-being: The collected works of Ed Diener (Vo. 37). Springer Netherlands.
Diener, E., & Lucas, R. E. (1999). Personality and subjective well-being, In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwartz (Eds), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology, 213-229. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125 (2), 276-302. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.125.2.276
Ellis, A., & Knaus, W. J. (1977). Overcoming procrastination. New York: Signet.
Eryılmaz, A. (2009). Ergen öznel iyi oluş ölçeğinin geliştirilməsi. Türk Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi Güz 2009, 7(4), 975-989. Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/download/article-file/256299 (accessed January 18th 2023 )
Fasola, A. C., & Osisanya, A. (2022). Industrial noise exposure and work-related stress as predictors of auditory performance and psychological well-being of industrial workers in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Turkish International Journal of Special Education and Guidance & Counselling (TIJSEG), 11(2), 149-161.
Ferrari, J. R., Johnson, J. L., & McCown, W. G. (1995). Procrastination and Task Avoidance: Theory, Research, and Treatment. New York: Plenum Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-0227-6
Ferrari, J. R., Parker, J. T., & Ware, C. B. (1992). Academic procrastination: Personality correlates with Myers-Briggs types, self-efficacy, and academic locus of control. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 7, 595-602.
Glick, D. M., Millstein, D. J., & Orsillo, S. M. (2014). A preliminary investigation of the role of psychological inflexibility in academic procrastination. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 3(2), 81–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcbs.2014.04.002
Grecco, P. R. (1984). A cognitive-behavioral assessment of problematic academic procrastination: development of a procrastination self-statement inventory. California School of Professional Psychology-Fresno.
Hampton, N. Z. (2004). Subjective well-being among people with spinal cord injuries: the role of self-efficacy, perceived social support, and perceived health. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 48:31–37. https://doi.org/10.1177/003435520404800104
Haycock, L. A., Mccarthy, P., & Skay, C. L. (1998). Procrastination in college students: The role of self-efficacy and anxiety. Journal of Counseling and Development, 76(3), 317-324. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.15566676.1998.tb02548.x
Hill, V. M., Rebar, A. L., Ferguson, S. A., Shriane, A. E., & Vincent, G. E. (2022). Go to bed! A systematic review and meta-analysis of bedtime procrastination correlates and sleep outcomes. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 66, Article 101697. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2022.101697
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118
İra, N., & Yalçın, G. (2022). Relationship of crisis management of school principals and psychological capital of teachers. Turkish International Journal of Special Education and Guidance & Counselling (TIJSEG), 11(1), 47-60.
Karademas, E. C., Kafetsios, K., & Sideridis, G. D. (2007). Optimism, self-efficacy and information processing of threat and well-being related stimuli. Stress And Health, 23(1), 285-294. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.1147
Kieling, C., Baker-Henningham, H. , Belfer, M. (2011). Child and adolescent mental health worldwide: Evidence for action. Lancet, 2011(378), 1515–1525. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60827-1
Klassen, R. M., Krawchuk, L. L., & Rajani, S. (2008). Academic procrastination of undergraduates: Low self-efficacy to self-regulate predicts higher levels of procrastination. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(4), 915-931. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2007.07.001
Knaus, W. J. (1998). Do it now! Break the procrastination habit. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Maker-Castro, E., Wray-Lake, L., & Cohen, A. K. (2022). Critical consciousness and wellbeing in adolescents and young adults: A systematic review. Adolescent Research Review, 7(4), 499-522. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40894-022-00188-3
Martín-Puga, M. E., Pelegrina, S., Gómez-Pérez, M. M., & Justicia-Galiano, M. J. (2022). Psychometric Properties and Measurement Invariance of the Academic Procrastination Scale-Short Form in Spanish Children and Adolescents. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 40(7), 880-894. https://doi.org/10.1177/07342829221106538
Merlo, G., & Vela, A. (2022). Mental health in lifestyle medicine: a call to action. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 16(1), 7-20.
Myers, D. & Diener. (1995). Who is happy? American Psychological Society, 6, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.1995.tb00298.x
Pajares, F. (1996). Self-efficacy beliefs in achievement settings. Review of Educational Research, 66 (4), 543-578. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543066004543
Palak, İ., & İra, N. (2022). The relationship between self-leadership and teachers’ psychological well-being. Turkish International Journal of Special Education and Guidance & Counselling (TIJSEG), 11(2), 122-134.
Pychyl, T. A., & Little, B. R. (1998). Dimensional specificity in the prediction of subjective well-being: Personal projects in pursuit of the PhD. Social Indicators Research, 45, 423–473. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006970504138
Pychyl, T. A., Lee, J. M., Thibodeau, R., & Blunt, A. (2000). Five days of emotion: An experience sampling study of undergraduate student procrastination. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15(5), 153-166.
Satici, B. (2020). Social exclusion and adolescent wellbeing: Stress, school satisfaction, and academic self-efficacy as multiple mediators. The Educational and Developmental Psychologist, 37(1), 67-74. https://doi.org/10.1017/edp.2020.7
Savithri, J. J. (2014). Interactive effect of academic procrastination and academic performance on life satisfaction. International Journal of Science and Research, 3(3), 377–381.
Sawitri, D. R., & Ariati, J. (2011). Self-regulation training as an effort to enhance students’ competitiveness (A step towards World Class University). Paper presented at the International Conference on Psychological of Resilience, Depok, Indonesia.
Schouwenburg, H.C. (1995). Academic Procrastination. In: Procrastination and Task Avoidance. The Springer Series in Social Clinical Psychology. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-0227-6_4
Schraw, G., Wadkins, T., & Olafson, L. (2007). Doing the things we do: A grounded theory of academic procrastination. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(1), 12-15. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.11
Senécal, C., Koestner, R., & Vallerand, R. J. (1995) Self-regulation and academic procrastination. Journal of Social Psychology, 135(1), 607-619. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1995.9712234
Shoshani, A., Steinmetz, S., & Kanat-Maymon, Y. (2016). Effects of the Maytiv positive psychology school program on early adolescents’ well-being, engagement, and achievement. Journal of School Psychology, 57, 73-92.
Simsaroğlu Beydola, B., Karagülmez, K., Ruso, K., Kaptan, S., & Bulut Serin, N. (2022).Evaluation of hopelessness and life satisfaction levels in adolescents. Turkish International Journal of Special Education and Guidance & Counselling (TIJSEG), 11(2), 162-177.
Singh, B., & Udainiya, R. (2009). Self-efficacy and well-being of adolescents. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 35(2), 227-232.
Sirois, F. (2004). Procrastination and intentions to perform health behaviors: The role of self-efficacy and the consideration of future consequences. Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 115-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2003.08.005
Solomon, L. J., & Rothblum, E. D. (1984). Academic procrastination: Frequency and cognitive-behavioral correlates. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31, 503-509. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-018.104.22.1683
Steel, P. (2002). The measurement and nature of procrastination. Unpublished doctorate thesis. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
Tamini, B. K., Minakhany, G., & Zare, F. (2013). Academic procrastination and its relationship with parenting styles and self-esteem among undergraduate students. International Journal of Psychology, 7(1), 87–104.
Tian, L., Yu, T., & Huebner, E. S. (2017). Achievement goal orientations and adolescents’ subjective well-being in school: The mediating roles of academic social comparison directions. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 37. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00037
Tice, D. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (1997). Longitudinal study of procrastination, performance, stress, and health: The costs and benefits of dawdling. Psychological Science, 8(6), 454–458. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.1997.tb00460.x
Tuckman, B. W. (2007). The effect of motivational scaffolding on procrastinators' distance learning outcomes. Computer & Education, 49, 414-422.
Tuckman, B.W. (1998) Using tests as an incentive to motivate procrastinators to study. Journal of Experimental Education, 66, 141-147.
UNICEF. (2020). Adolescent health and well-being. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/health/adolescent-health-and-well-being (accessed January 18th 2023)
Unni, K. M., Geir, A. E., & Gørill, H. (2013). Stress, sense of coherence, and emotional symptoms in adolescents. Psychology & Health, 29(1), 31-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2013.822868
World Health Organization (WHO). (2018). Adolescents: Health risks and solutions. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/adolescents-health-risks-and-solutions (accessed January 17th 2023)
Wright, S. L., Firsick, D. M., Kacmarski, J. A., & Jenkins-Guarnieri, M. A. (2017). Effects of attachment on coping efficacy, career decision self-efficacy, and life satisfaction. Journal of Counseling and Development, 95(4), 445–456. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcad.12159
Copyright (c) 2023 International Online Journal of Primary Education (IOJPE) ISSN: 1300-915X
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright and permissions
The manuscripts submitted to International Online Journal of Primary Education (IOJPE) for publication should be original studies that were not published before or not submitted to anywhere else for publication.
Authors who submit their manuscript to International Online Journal of Primary Education (IOJPE) should acknowledge that they agree to transfer the copyright of their studies to IOJPE. All Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.
All articles published in International Online Journal of Primary Education (IOJPE) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).
Any further distribution or use of content published under CC BY 4.0 must contain the author(s) and the published article’s title, and journal citation. All articles published in IOJPE under a CC BY License may be used for Text and Data Mining purposes, subject to the conditions of the CC BY License terms. The license allows for commercial use. IOJPE allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, so long as attribution is given to the creator.
The journal’s objective is to disseminate articles published are free. Under the Creative Commons license (CC BY 4.00), the journal allows the user to permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, and even use the publication for commercial activities, provided that the original work is properly cited.
Open access is an approach that eases the interdisciplinary communication and encourages cooperation among different disciplines. IOJPE, therefore, contributes to its own field by providing more access to its articles and a more transparent review process.