DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF THE LANGUAGE BARRIER SCALE FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
This study aims to develop a scale that examines the communication difficulties that migrant and refugee students face in the primary school period, the initial stages of their involvement in the educational process. As a result of a questionnaire administered to 271 primary school teachers via the simple random sampling method, the reliability of the measurement method was found to be .96. As a result of explanatory factor analysis, it was seen that 39 items constituted a four-factor structure (Deprivation, Labeling, Exclusion, and Acceptance). Data were then compiled by administering the scale to 112 teachers again for confirmatory factor analysis. According to the findings, the goodness of fit values were at good levels and the factor structure was validated. “Language-related difficulties” and “language barrier” were found to be two different phenomena. In order to understand the language barrier as a phenomenon that gives continuity to language-related difficulties, it is necessary to develop a perspective that puts students’ school experiences at the center and evaluates them within the context of their own unique conditions. In this context, a perspective that questions the performance-based climate of schools is also needed.
Keywords: Language barrier, primary school students, immigrant students, refugee students, exclusion.
Aktay, Y. (2010). Pierre Bourdieu ve bir Maxwell cini olarak okul. In G. Çeğin, E. Göker, A. Arlı, & Ü. Tatlıcan (Eds.), Ocak ve zanaat: Pierre Bourdieu derlemesi [in Turkish] (pp. 473-498). Iletisim Publishing.
Arias, M. B. (2015). Parent and community involvement in bilingual and multilingual education. In W. E. Wright, S. Boun, & O. García (Eds.), The handbook of bilingual and multilingual education (pp. 282-298). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Aydın, H., & Kaya, Y. (2017). The educational needs of and barriers faced by Syrian refugee students in Turkey: A qualitative case study. Intercultural Education, 28(5), 456-473. https://doi.org/10.1080/14675986.2017.1336373
Baltacı, A., Coşkun, M. K., & Ceylan, I. (2019). İmam hatip liselerindeki Suriyeli öğrencilerin din eğitimi sorunları: Çözüme yönelik nitel bir analiz. [The religious education problems of Syrian students in religious-based (imam hatip) high schools: A qualitative analysis for solution]. Journal of the Faculty of Divinity of Ankara University, 60(2), 307-336. https://doi.org/10.33227/auifd.559156
Bartlett, M. S. (2001). Independent component representations for face recognition. In face image analysis by unsupervised learning. The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science, 612. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-1637-8_3
Bartlett, J. E., Kotrlik, J. W., & Higgins, C. C. (2001). Organizational research: Determining appropriate sample size in survey research. Information Technology, Learning, and Performance Journal, 19(1), 43-50.
Biçer, N., & Özaltun, H. (2020). Mülteci ortaokul öğrencilerinin Türkçe dil becerilerine ve okula uyum süreçlerine ilişkin Suriyeli ve Türk öğrencilerin görüşleri [Syrian and Turkish students’ views on refugee secondary school students' Turkish language skills and school adaptation processes]. International Journal of Euroasian Researches, 8(23), 348-364. https://doi.org/10.33692/avrasyad.668251
Block, K., Cross, S., Riggs, E., & Gibbs, L. (2014). Supporting schools to create an inclusive environment for refugee students. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 18(12), 1337–1355. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2014.899636
Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J. C. (2014). Vârisler: Öğrenciler ve kültür [in Turkish]. (L. Ünsaldı, A. Sümer, Trans.). Heretik. (Original work published 1964).
Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J. C. (2015). Yeniden üretim: Eğitim sistemine ilişkin bir teorinin ilkeleri [in Turkish]. (A. Sümer, L. Ünsaldı, Ö. Akaya, Trans.). Heretik Publishing. (Original work published 1970).
Bourdieu, P. (1995). Pratik nedenler: Eylem kuramı üzerine [in Turkish]. (H. Tufan, Trans.). Kesit Publishing. (Original work published 1994).
Brisk, M. E., de Jong, E. J., & Moore, M. C. (2015). Primary school bilingual education: Pedagogical issues and practices. In W. E. Wright, S. Boun & O. García (Eds.), The handbook of bilingual and multilingual education (pp.319-335). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Correa-Velez, I., Gifford, S. M., & Barnett, A. G. (2010), Longing to belong: Social inclusion and wellbeing among youth with refugee backgrounds in the first three years in Melbourne, Australia, Social Science & Medicine, 71(8), 1399-1408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.07.018
Coşkun, İ., & Emin, M. N. (2016). Türkiye’deki Suriyelilerin eğitiminde yol haritası fırsatlar ve zorluklar [in Turkish]. Ankara: Seta Publishing.
Creswell, J. W., Klassen, A. C., Plano Clark, V. L., & Smith, K. C. (2011). Best practices for mixed methods research in the health sciences. Bethesda (Maryland): National Institutes of Health, 541-545.
Cristobal, E., Flavian, C., & Guinaliu, M. (2007). Perceived e-service quality (Pesq): Measurement validation and effects on consumer satisfaction and web site loyalty. Managing Service Quality, 17(3), 317-40.
Cross, M. (2009). Language and social exclusion (I CAN Talk Series - Issue 4). Retrieved from https://www.aph.gov.au/DocumentStore.ashx?id=cd56a8a0-8f92-42cf-9657-ef92a5ebc12f on 21.04.2021
Cülha, A. & Demirtaş, H. (2020). Dezavantajlı bir grup olarak geçici koruma statüsündeki öğrencilerin eğitim öğretim hizmetlerinden yararlanma durumları [The situation of the students', who are under temporary protection status as a disadvantaged group, benefiting situation from educational services]. Harran Education Journal, 5(2), 46-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.22596/2020.0502.46.75
Emin, M. N. (2019). Geleceğin inşası: Türkiye’deki Suriyeli çocukların eğitimi [in Turkish]. Ankara: Seta Publishing.
Ereş, F. (2015). Türkiye’de göçmen eğitimi sorunsalı ve göçmen eğitiminde farklılığın yönetimi [Problematic of migrant education and diversity management for immigrant education in Turkey]. Çankırı Karatekin University Journal of Institute of Social Sciences, 6(2), 17-30.
Ergün, N., & Demir, İ. (2017). Push-out or dropout?: A grounded theory on adolescents’ school detachment. In O. N. Akfırat, D. F. Staub & G. Yavaş (Eds.), Current debates in education (pp. 81-102). Ijopec Publication.
Ergün, N. (2014). Ergenlerde okul dışına itilme: Nusaybin örneği [Adolescents pushed out of school: The case of Nusaybi̇n] (Unpublished master’s dissertation). İstanbul University Institute of Social Sciences, Turkey.
Faltis, C., & Ramírez-Marín, F. (2015). Secondary bilingual education: Cutting the Gordian knot. In W. E. Wright, S. Boun & O. García (Eds.), The handbook of bilingual and multilingual education (pp. 336-353). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
First, J. M. (1988). Immigrant students in U.S. public schools: Challenges with solutions. Phi Delta Kappa International, 70(3), 205–210.
García, E. E., & Markos, A. M., Early childhood education and dual language learners. In W. E. Wright, S. Boun & O. García (Eds.), The handbook of bilingual and multilingual education (pp. 301-318). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Göçer, V., Özer, S., & Ürünibrahimoğlu, M. (2020). Sınıf öğretmenlerinin Suriyeli mülteci öğrencilere yönelik tutumlarının hizmet içi eğitim bağlamında incelenmesi: Bir karma yöntem araştırması [Examining the attitudes of classroom teachers towards Syrian refugee students in the context of in-service training: A mixed method research]. Inonu University Journal of the Graduate School of Education, 7(14), 24-41. https://doi.org/10.29129/inujgse.765149
Gözübüyük Tamer, M. (2017). Geçici koruma kapsamındaki Suriyeli çocukların Trabzon devlet okullarındaki durumu [Syrian refugee children in public schools in Trabzon]. The Journal of Migration Studies, 4(2), 119-152. https://doi.org/10.33182/gd.v4i2.594
Grubb, E. B. (1974). Breaking the language barrier: The right to bilingual education. Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, 9(1), 52–94.
Gülüm, K., & Akçalı, H. (2017). Balıkesir’deki mülteci çocukların eğitim sorunları [Education problems of refugee children who live in Balıkesir]. Van Yüzüncü Yıl University The Journal of Social Sciences Institute, 1 (Special Issue-1), 127–136.
Hilt, L. T. (2017). Education without a shared language: Dynamics of inclusion and exclusion in Norwegian introductory classes for newly arrived minority language students. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 21(6), 585–601. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2016.1223179
International Organization for Migration [IOM]. (2019). World migration report 2020. Retrieved form https://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/wmr_2020.pdf on 14.09.2020
Işık, M., Bahat, İ., Öncüler, İ., & Özdemir, A. (2021). İstanbul ili Beylikdüzü ilçesinde yaşayan göçmen öğrencilerin deneyimlerinin incelenmesi [Examining the experiences of migrant students living in Beylı̇kdüzü district of Istanbul]. Milli Eğitim Dergisi, 50(1), 925-950. https://doi.org/10.37669/milliegitim.951813
Istanbul Bilgi University Child Studies Unit [ÇOÇA]. (2015). Suriyeli mülteci çocukların Türkiye devlet okullarındaki durumu: Politika ve uygulama önerileri [in Turkish]. Retrieved from http://cocuk.bilgi.edu.tr/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/Suriyeli-Cocuklar-Egitim-Sistemi-Politika-Notu.pdf on 19.01.2021
Johns, S. E. (2001). Using the Comer model to educate immigrant children. Childhood Education, 77(5), 268-274. https://doi.org/10.1080/00094056.2001.10521649
Jöreskog, K. G. (1969). A general approach to confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analysis. Psychometrika, 34(2), 183-202.
Kaiser, H. F. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39(1), 31-36.
Karadağ, E., Su, A., Dulay, S., & Ütük, İ. (2020). Suriyeli öğrencilerin eğitim sistemine entegrasyonunda okul yöneticilerinin karşılaştığı sorunlar [Problems faced by school administrators in integration of Syrian students to education system]. Mediterranean Journal of Educational Research, 14(31), 21-39. https://doi.org/10.29329/mjer.2020.234.2
Kaştan, Y. (2015). Türkiye’de göç yaşamış çocukların eğitim sürecinde karşılaşılan problemler [Problems on migration process of children lived in Turkey]. International Journal of Social and Educational Sciences, 2(4), 216-229.
Kaysılı, A., Soylu, A., & Sever, M. (2019). Exploring major roadblocks on inclusive education of Syrian refugees in school settings. Turkish Journal of Education, 8(2), 109-128. https://dx.doi.org/10.19128/turje.496261
Koşar, S., & Aslan, F. (2020). İlkokul ve ortaokula devam eden göçmen çocukların eğitim sorunlarına yönelik okul yöneticilerinin görüşleri [Views of school administrators on the education problems of migrant children in primary and secondary school]. International Journal of Turkish Literature Culture and Education, 9(4), 1799-1831.
Levent, F., & Çayak, S. (2017). Türkiye’deki Suriyeli öğrencilerin eğitimine yönelik okul yöneticilerinin görüşleri [School administrators’ views on Syrian students’ education in Turkey]. HAYEF: Journal of Education, 14-1(27), 21-46.
McBrien, J. L. (2005). Educational needs and barriers for refugee students in the United States: A review of the literature. Review of Educational Research, 75(3), 329-364. Retrieved from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.3102/00346543075003329 on 15.03.2021
Republic of Turkey Ministry of National Education [MEB]. (2020). National Education Statistics, Formel Education 2019/’20. Retrieved from http://sgb.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2020_09/04144812_meb_istatistikleri_orgun_egitim_2019_2020.pdf on 16.07.2020
Mohanty, A. K., Mishra, M. K., Reddy, N. U., & Gumidyala, R. (2009). Overcoming the language barrier for tribal children: Multilingual education in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa, India. In T. Skutnabb-Kangas, R. Phillipson, A. K. Mohanty & M. Panda (Eds.), Social justice through multilingual education (pp.283-298). Multilingual Matters.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD]. (2015a). Helping immigrant students to succeed at school–and beyond. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/education/Helping-immigrant-students-to-succeed-at-school-and-beyond.pdf on 18.08.2020
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD]. (2015b). Immigrant students at school: Easing the journey towards integration (OECD Reviews of Migrant Education). http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264249509-en
Özer, Y. Y., Komşuoğlu, A., & Ateşok, Z. O. (2017). One common future, two education systems: The case of Syrian children of Istanbul. European Education, 49(2-3), 114-132. https://doi.org/10.1080/10564934.2017.1328268
Paget, A., Parker, C., Heron, J., Logan, S., Henley, W., Emond, A., & Ford, T. (2018). Which children and young people are excluded from school? Findings from a large British birth cohort study, the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children (ALSPAC). Child: Care, Health and Development, 44(2), 285-296. https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12525
Paia, M., Cummins, J., Nocus, I., Salaün, M., & Vernaudon, J. (2015). Intersections of language ideology, power, and identity: Bilingual education and indigenous language revitalization in French Polynesia. In W. E. Wright, S. Boun & O. García (Eds.), The handbook of bilingual and multilingual education (pp. 145-163). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Pysarchyk, O. L., & Yamshynska, N. V. (2015). Students’ “language barrier”: Psychological factors and solutions. Journal of the National Technical University of Ukraine “KPI”: Philology and Educational Studies, 6, 74-79.
Ricento, T. (2015). Global dimensions of bilingual and multilingual education: Canada. In W. E. Wright, S. Boun & O. García (Eds.), The handbook of bilingual and multilingual education (pp. 461-472). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Sakız, H. (2016). Göçmen çocuklar ve okul kültürleri: Bir bütünleştirme önerisi [Migrant children and school cultures: A suggestion for inclusion]. The Journal of Migration Studies, 3(1), 65-82. https://doi.org/10.33182/gd.v3i1.555
Sarıer, Y. (2020). Türkiye’de mülteci öğrencilerin eğitimi üzerine bir meta-sentez çalışması: Sorunlar ve çözüm önerileri. [Student education for refugees in Turkey on the meta-synthesis study: Problems and solution suggestions]. Journal of New Approaches in Education. 3(1), 80-111.
Sözer, M. A., & Işıker, Y. (2021). Suriyeli öğrencilerin eğitim süreçlerinde öğretmenlerin karşılaştıkları sorunlar [in Turkish]. Journal of Ahi Evran University Institute of Social Sciences, 7(1), 183-200.
Suárez-Orozco, C., & Suárez-Orozco, M. M. (2001). Children of immigration. Harvard University Press.
Taşkın, P., & Erdemli, O. (2018). Education for Syrian refugees: Problems faced by teachers in Turkey. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 75, 155-178.
Taştan, C., & Çelik, Z. (2017). Türkiye’de Suriyeli çocukların eğitimi: Güçlükler ve öneriler [in Turkish]. Retrieved from https://www.ebs.org.tr/ebs_files/files/yayinlarimiz/Suriye_Rapor_TURKCE_pdf.pdf on 30.12.2020
Taylor, S., & Sidhu, R. K. (2012). Supporting refugee students in schools: What constitutes inclusive education? International Journal of Inclusive Education, 16(1), 39-56. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603110903560085
Tomozawa, A., & Majima, J. (2015). Bilingual education in Japan: Slow but steady progress. In W. E. Wright, S. Boun & O. García (Eds.), The handbook of bilingual and multilingual education (pp. 495-505). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Tosun, A., Yorulmaz, A., Tekin, İ., & Yıldız, K. (2018). Mülteci öğrencilerin eğitim sorunları, eğitim ve din eğitiminden beklentileri: Eskişehir örneği [Problems and expectations of refugee students about education and religious education: Case of Eskişehir]. Journal of Social Sciences: Eskişehir Osmangazi University. 19(1), 107-133. https://doi.org/10.17494/ogusbd.457087
Türnüklü, A., Özkan, Ö. S., & Tercan, M. (2021). İlkokul sınıf öğretmenlerinin Türkiyeli ve Suriyeli öğrencilerin birbirlerine ilişkin tutumlarına yönelik deneyimleri: Gruplararası tutum [Experiences of classroom teachers towards intergroup attitudes among Turkish and Syrian primary school students: Intergroup attitudes]. Nesne Journal of Psychology, 9(21), 656-673. https://doi.org/10.7816/nesne-09-21-11
United Nations Children’s Fund [UNICEF]. (2012). Education and rapid needs assessment for displaces Syrian children in schools, community and safe spaces. Retrieved from https://data2.unhcr.org/en/documents/details/36499 on 24.03.2021
Uzun, E. M., & Bütün, E. (2016). Okul öncesi eğitim kurumlarındaki Suriyeli sığınmacı çocukların karşılaştıkları sorunlar hakkında öğretmen görüşleri [Teacher opinions about problems faced by Syrian refugee children in preschool education institutions]. International Journal of Early Childhood Education Studies-IJECES, 1(1), 72-83.
Walt, C. V. D. (2015). Bi / multilingual higher education: Perspectives and practices. In W. E. Wright, S. Boun & O. García (Eds.), The handbook of bilingual and multilingual education (pp. 354-371). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Yaylaci, F. G., Serpil, H., & Yaylacı, A. F. (2017). Paydaşların gözünden mülteci ve sığınmacılarda eğitim: Eskişehir örneği [Refugee and asylum-seeker education from stakeholder perspectives: Eskişehir case]. Mediterranean Journal of Educational Research, 11(22), 101-117.
Copyright (c) 2022 International Online Journal of Primary Education (IOJPE) ISSN: 1300-915X
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright and permissions
The manuscripts submitted to International Online Journal of Primary Education (IOJPE) for publication should be original studies that were not published before or not submitted to anywhere else for publication.
Authors who submit their manuscript to International Online Journal of Primary Education (IOJPE) should acknowledge that they agree to transfer the copyright of their studies to IOJPE. All Open Access articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.
All articles published in International Online Journal of Primary Education (IOJPE) are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0).
Any further distribution or use of content published under CC BY 4.0 must contain the author(s) and the published article’s title, and journal citation. All articles published in IOJPE under a CC BY License may be used for Text and Data Mining purposes, subject to the conditions of the CC BY License terms. The license allows for commercial use. IOJPE allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, so long as attribution is given to the creator.
The journal’s objective is to disseminate articles published are free. Under the Creative Commons license (CC BY 4.00), the journal allows the user to permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, and even use the publication for commercial activities, provided that the original work is properly cited.
Open access is an approach that eases the interdisciplinary communication and encourages cooperation among different disciplines. IOJPE, therefore, contributes to its own field by providing more access to its articles and a more transparent review process.